Preliminary study on the use of nonrigid registration for thoraco-abdominal radiosurgery
Stancanello, J, Berna, E. , Cavedon, C. , Francescon, P., Loeckx, D. , Cerveri, P. , Ferrigno, G. , Baselli, G.
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The inclusion of organ deformation and movement in radiosurgery treatment planning is of increasing importance as research and clinical applications begin to take into consideration the effects of physiological processes, like breathing, on the shape and position of lesions. In this scenario, the challenge is to localize the target in toto (not only by means of marker sampling) and to calculate the dose distribution as the sum of all the contributions from the positions assumed by the target during the respiratory cycle. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of nonrigid registration for target tracking and dynamic treatment planning, i.e., treatment planning based not on one single CT scan but on multiple CT scans representative of the respiration. Twenty patients were CT scanned at end-inhale and end-exhale. An expert radiation oncologist identified the PTV in both examinations. The two CT data sets per patient were nonrigidly registered using a free-form deformation algorithm based on B-splines. The optimized objective function consisted of a weighted sum of a similarity criterion (Mutual Information) and a regularization factor which constrains the transformation to be locally rigid. Once the transformation was obtained and the registration validated, its parameters were applied to the target only. Finally, the deformed target was compared to the PTV delineated by the radiation oncologist in the other study. The results of this procedure show an agreement between the center of mass as well as volume of the target identified automatically by deformable registration and manually by the radiation oncologist. Moreover, obtained displacements were in agreement with body structure constraints and considerations usually accepted in radiation therapy practice. No significant influence of initial target volume on displacements was found. In conclusion, the proposed method seems to offer the possibility of using nonrigid registrations in radiosurgery treatment planning, even if more cases need to be investigated in order to give a statistical consistency to parameter setup and proposed considerations. © 2005 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Deformation; Nonrigid registration; Organ motion; Radiosurgery; Respiration